Working Towards Compliance with the NPT and IAEA Safeguards Regime
There are four international legal instruments that promote the enhancement of the nuclear non-proliferation regime, including obligations of parties to demonstrate their commitment towards peaceful applications of nuclear energy. These instruments include the Treaty for the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT); Safeguards Agreement for the application of the NPT; the Additional Protocol to the Safeguard Agreement; and the Treaty of Pelindaba.
Treaty for the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT)
The NPT, of which Namibia is a signatory since 1992, is the centrepiece of global efforts to prevent the further spread of nuclear weapons and represents a balance of rights and obligations with regard to nuclear disarmament, non-proliferation and peaceful use.
Safeguards Agreement with the IAEA
Namibia ratified the Safeguards Agreement in April 1998 and in accordance with its terms, Namibia undertakes to accept safeguards on all nuclear material in all peaceful nuclear activities, within its territory, under its jurisdiction or carried out under its control anywhere for the purpose of verifying that such material is not diverted to nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices. The purpose of the Safeguards Agreement is the timely detection of diversion of significant quantities of nuclear material from peaceful nuclear activities to the manufacture of nuclear weapons or of other nuclear explosive devise or for purposes unknown, and deterrence of such diversion by the risk of early detection.
Additional Protocol to the Safeguard Agreementafrica
As part of the IAEA’s efforts to strengthen the effectiveness and improve the efficiency of the safeguards system, the Model Additional Protocol was developed to equip the system with better tools to provide assurance about both declared and possible undeclared nuclear activities. The shift in the focus of safeguards implementation is from verification of declared nuclear material at declared facilities to understanding and assessing the consistency of information on a State’s nuclear programme. The Model Additional Protocol was signed in April 2000 and approved by Parliament in 2011.
Treaty of Pelindaba
The African Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone Treaty (Treaty of Pelindaba) declares Africa a zone free of nuclear weapons as an important step towards the strengthening of the nuclear non-proliferation regime; the promotion of cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy; complete disarmament; and the enhancement of regional peace and security. The Treaty, which Namibia signed in April 1996, came into effect on 15 July 2009. The Treaty has been approved in 2011 by Parliament.